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//! * a Text-To-Speech (TTS) library providing high-level interfaces to a variety of backends.
//! * Currently supported backends are:
//! * * Windows
//! * * Screen readers/SAPI via Tolk (requires `tolk` Cargo feature)
//! * * WinRT
//! * * Linux via [Speech Dispatcher](https://freebsoft.org/speechd)
//! * * MacOS/iOS
//! * * AppKit on MacOS 10.13 and below
//! * * AVFoundation on MacOS 10.14 and above, and iOS
//! * * Android
//! * * WebAssembly
use std::collections::HashMap;
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
use std::ffi::CStr;
use std::fmt;
#[cfg(windows)]
use std::string::FromUtf16Error;
use std::sync::{Arc, Mutex};
use std::{boxed::Box, sync::RwLock};
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
use cocoa_foundation::base::id;
use dyn_clonable::*;
use lazy_static::lazy_static;
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
use libc::c_char;
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
use objc::{class, msg_send, sel, sel_impl};
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
use speech_dispatcher::Error as SpeechDispatcherError;
use thiserror::Error;
#[cfg(all(windows, feature = "tolk"))]
use tolk::Tolk;
pub use unic_langid::LanguageIdentifier;
mod backends;
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug, Eq, Hash, PartialEq, PartialOrd, Ord)]
#[cfg_attr(feature = "serde", derive(serde::Serialize, serde::Deserialize))]
pub enum Backends {
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
Android,
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
AppKit,
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
AvFoundation,
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
SpeechDispatcher,
#[cfg(all(windows, feature = "tolk"))]
Tolk,
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
Web,
#[cfg(windows)]
WinRt,
}
impl fmt::Display for Backends {
fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), fmt::Error> {
match self {
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
Backends::Android => writeln!(f, "Android"),
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
Backends::AppKit => writeln!(f, "AppKit"),
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
Backends::AvFoundation => writeln!(f, "AVFoundation"),
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
Backends::SpeechDispatcher => writeln!(f, "Speech Dispatcher"),
#[cfg(all(windows, feature = "tolk"))]
Backends::Tolk => writeln!(f, "Tolk"),
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
Backends::Web => writeln!(f, "Web"),
#[cfg(windows)]
Backends::WinRt => writeln!(f, "Windows Runtime"),
}
}
}
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug, Eq, Hash, PartialEq, PartialOrd, Ord)]
#[cfg_attr(feature = "serde", derive(serde::Serialize, serde::Deserialize))]
pub enum BackendId {
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
Android(u64),
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
AvFoundation(u64),
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
SpeechDispatcher(u64),
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
Web(u64),
#[cfg(windows)]
WinRt(u64),
}
impl fmt::Display for BackendId {
fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), fmt::Error> {
match self {
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
BackendId::Android(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
BackendId::AvFoundation(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
BackendId::SpeechDispatcher(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
BackendId::Web(id) => writeln!(f, "Web({})", id),
#[cfg(windows)]
BackendId::WinRt(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
}
}
}
// # Note
//
// Most trait implementations are blocked by cocoa_foundation::base::id;
// which is a type alias for objc::runtime::Object, which only implements Debug.
#[derive(Debug)]
#[cfg_attr(
not(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios")),
derive(Clone, Copy, Eq, Hash, PartialEq, PartialOrd, Ord)
)]
#[cfg_attr(
all(feature = "serde", not(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))),
derive(serde::Serialize, serde::Deserialize)
)]
pub enum UtteranceId {
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
Android(u64),
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
AvFoundation(id),
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
SpeechDispatcher(u64),
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
Web(u64),
#[cfg(windows)]
WinRt(u64),
}
// # Note
//
// Display is not implemented by cocoa_foundation::base::id;
// which is a type alias for objc::runtime::Object, which only implements Debug.
#[cfg(not(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios")))]
impl fmt::Display for UtteranceId {
fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), fmt::Error> {
match self {
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
UtteranceId::Android(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
UtteranceId::SpeechDispatcher(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
UtteranceId::Web(id) => writeln!(f, "Web({})", id),
#[cfg(windows)]
UtteranceId::WinRt(id) => writeln!(f, "{}", id),
}
}
}
unsafe impl Send for UtteranceId {}
unsafe impl Sync for UtteranceId {}
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug, Default, Eq, Hash, PartialEq, PartialOrd, Ord)]
#[cfg_attr(feature = "serde", derive(serde::Serialize, serde::Deserialize))]
pub struct Features {
pub is_speaking: bool,
pub pitch: bool,
pub rate: bool,
pub stop: bool,
pub utterance_callbacks: bool,
pub voice: bool,
pub get_voice: bool,
pub volume: bool,
}
impl fmt::Display for Features {
fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), fmt::Error> {
writeln!(f, "{:#?}", self)
}
}
impl Features {
pub fn new() -> Self {
Self::default()
}
}
#[derive(Debug, Error)]
pub enum Error {
#[error("IO error: {0}")]
Io(#[from] std::io::Error),
#[error("Value not received")]
NoneError,
#[error("Operation failed")]
OperationFailed,
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
#[error("JavaScript error: [0]")]
JavaScriptError(wasm_bindgen::JsValue),
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
#[error("Speech Dispatcher error: {0}")]
SpeechDispatcher(#[from] SpeechDispatcherError),
#[cfg(windows)]
#[error("WinRT error")]
WinRt(windows::core::Error),
#[cfg(windows)]
#[error("UTF string conversion failed")]
UtfStringConversionFailed(#[from] FromUtf16Error),
#[error("Unsupported feature")]
UnsupportedFeature,
#[error("Out of range")]
OutOfRange,
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
#[error("JNI error: [0])]")]
JNI(#[from] jni::errors::Error),
}
#[clonable]
pub trait Backend: Clone {
fn id(&self) -> Option<BackendId>;
fn supported_features(&self) -> Features;
fn speak(&mut self, text: &str, interrupt: bool) -> Result<Option<UtteranceId>, Error>;
fn stop(&mut self) -> Result<(), Error>;
fn min_rate(&self) -> f32;
fn max_rate(&self) -> f32;
fn normal_rate(&self) -> f32;
fn get_rate(&self) -> Result<f32, Error>;
fn set_rate(&mut self, rate: f32) -> Result<(), Error>;
fn min_pitch(&self) -> f32;
fn max_pitch(&self) -> f32;
fn normal_pitch(&self) -> f32;
fn get_pitch(&self) -> Result<f32, Error>;
fn set_pitch(&mut self, pitch: f32) -> Result<(), Error>;
fn min_volume(&self) -> f32;
fn max_volume(&self) -> f32;
fn normal_volume(&self) -> f32;
fn get_volume(&self) -> Result<f32, Error>;
fn set_volume(&mut self, volume: f32) -> Result<(), Error>;
fn is_speaking(&self) -> Result<bool, Error>;
fn voices(&self) -> Result<Vec<Voice>, Error>;
fn voice(&self) -> Result<Option<Voice>, Error>;
fn set_voice(&mut self, voice: &Voice) -> Result<(), Error>;
}
#[derive(Default)]
struct Callbacks {
utterance_begin: Option<Box<dyn FnMut(UtteranceId)>>,
utterance_end: Option<Box<dyn FnMut(UtteranceId)>>,
utterance_stop: Option<Box<dyn FnMut(UtteranceId)>>,
}
unsafe impl Send for Callbacks {}
unsafe impl Sync for Callbacks {}
lazy_static! {
static ref CALLBACKS: Mutex<HashMap<BackendId, Callbacks>> = {
let m: HashMap<BackendId, Callbacks> = HashMap::new();
Mutex::new(m)
};
}
#[derive(Clone)]
pub struct Tts(Arc<RwLock<Box<dyn Backend>>>);
unsafe impl Send for Tts {}
unsafe impl Sync for Tts {}
impl Tts {
/// Create a new `TTS` instance with the specified backend.
pub fn new(backend: Backends) -> Result<Tts, Error> {
let backend = match backend {
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
Backends::SpeechDispatcher => {
let tts = backends::SpeechDispatcher::new()?;
Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(tts)))))
}
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
Backends::Web => {
let tts = backends::Web::new()?;
Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(tts)))))
}
#[cfg(all(windows, feature = "tolk"))]
Backends::Tolk => {
let tts = backends::Tolk::new();
if let Some(tts) = tts {
Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(tts)))))
} else {
Err(Error::NoneError)
}
}
#[cfg(windows)]
Backends::WinRt => {
let tts = backends::WinRt::new()?;
Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(tts)))))
}
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
Backends::AppKit => Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(
backends::AppKit::new()?
))))),
#[cfg(any(target_os = "macos", target_os = "ios"))]
Backends::AvFoundation => Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(
backends::AvFoundation::new()?,
))))),
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
Backends::Android => {
let tts = backends::Android::new()?;
Ok(Tts(Arc::new(RwLock::new(Box::new(tts)))))
}
};
if let Ok(backend) = backend {
if let Some(id) = backend.0.read().unwrap().id() {
let mut callbacks = CALLBACKS.lock().unwrap();
callbacks.insert(id, Callbacks::default());
}
Ok(backend)
} else {
backend
}
}
pub fn default() -> Result<Tts, Error> {
#[cfg(target_os = "linux")]
let tts = Tts::new(Backends::SpeechDispatcher);
#[cfg(all(windows, feature = "tolk"))]
let tts = if let Ok(tts) = Tts::new(Backends::Tolk) {
Ok(tts)
} else {
Tts::new(Backends::WinRt)
};
#[cfg(all(windows, not(feature = "tolk")))]
let tts = Tts::new(Backends::WinRt);
#[cfg(target_arch = "wasm32")]
let tts = Tts::new(Backends::Web);
#[cfg(target_os = "macos")]
let tts = unsafe {
// Needed because the Rust NSProcessInfo structs report bogus values, and I don't want to pull in a full bindgen stack.
let pi: id = msg_send![class!(NSProcessInfo), new];
let version: id = msg_send![pi, operatingSystemVersionString];
let str: *const c_char = msg_send![version, UTF8String];
let str = CStr::from_ptr(str);
let str = str.to_string_lossy();
let version: Vec<&str> = str.split(' ').collect();
let version = version[1];
let version_parts: Vec<&str> = version.split('.').collect();
let major_version: i8 = version_parts[0].parse().unwrap();
let minor_version: i8 = version_parts[1].parse().unwrap();
if major_version >= 11 || minor_version >= 14 {
Tts::new(Backends::AvFoundation)
} else {
Tts::new(Backends::AppKit)
}
};
#[cfg(target_os = "ios")]
let tts = Tts::new(Backends::AvFoundation);
#[cfg(target_os = "android")]
let tts = Tts::new(Backends::Android);
tts
}
/// Returns the features supported by this TTS engine
pub fn supported_features(&self) -> Features {
self.0.read().unwrap().supported_features()
}
/// Speaks the specified text, optionally interrupting current speech.
pub fn speak<S: Into<String>>(
&mut self,
text: S,
interrupt: bool,
) -> Result<Option<UtteranceId>, Error> {
self.0
.write()
.unwrap()
.speak(text.into().as_str(), interrupt)
}
/// Stops current speech.
pub fn stop(&mut self) -> Result<&Self, Error> {
let Features { stop, .. } = self.supported_features();
if stop {
self.0.write().unwrap().stop()?;
Ok(self)
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Returns the minimum rate for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn min_rate(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().min_rate()
}
/// Returns the maximum rate for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn max_rate(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().max_rate()
}
/// Returns the normal rate for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn normal_rate(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().normal_rate()
}
/// Gets the current speech rate.
pub fn get_rate(&self) -> Result<f32, Error> {
let Features { rate, .. } = self.supported_features();
if rate {
self.0.read().unwrap().get_rate()
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Sets the desired speech rate.
pub fn set_rate(&mut self, rate: f32) -> Result<&Self, Error> {
let Features {
rate: rate_feature, ..
} = self.supported_features();
if rate_feature {
let mut backend = self.0.write().unwrap();
if rate < backend.min_rate() || rate > backend.max_rate() {
Err(Error::OutOfRange)
} else {
backend.set_rate(rate)?;
Ok(self)
}
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Returns the minimum pitch for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn min_pitch(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().min_pitch()
}
/// Returns the maximum pitch for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn max_pitch(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().max_pitch()
}
/// Returns the normal pitch for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn normal_pitch(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().normal_pitch()
}
/// Gets the current speech pitch.
pub fn get_pitch(&self) -> Result<f32, Error> {
let Features { pitch, .. } = self.supported_features();
if pitch {
self.0.read().unwrap().get_pitch()
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Sets the desired speech pitch.
pub fn set_pitch(&mut self, pitch: f32) -> Result<&Self, Error> {
let Features {
pitch: pitch_feature,
..
} = self.supported_features();
if pitch_feature {
let mut backend = self.0.write().unwrap();
if pitch < backend.min_pitch() || pitch > backend.max_pitch() {
Err(Error::OutOfRange)
} else {
backend.set_pitch(pitch)?;
Ok(self)
}
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Returns the minimum volume for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn min_volume(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().min_volume()
}
/// Returns the maximum volume for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn max_volume(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().max_volume()
}
/// Returns the normal volume for this speech synthesizer.
pub fn normal_volume(&self) -> f32 {
self.0.read().unwrap().normal_volume()
}
/// Gets the current speech volume.
pub fn get_volume(&self) -> Result<f32, Error> {
let Features { volume, .. } = self.supported_features();
if volume {
self.0.read().unwrap().get_volume()
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Sets the desired speech volume.
pub fn set_volume(&mut self, volume: f32) -> Result<&Self, Error> {
let Features {
volume: volume_feature,
..
} = self.supported_features();
if volume_feature {
let mut backend = self.0.write().unwrap();
if volume < backend.min_volume() || volume > backend.max_volume() {
Err(Error::OutOfRange)
} else {
backend.set_volume(volume)?;
Ok(self)
}
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Returns whether this speech synthesizer is speaking.
pub fn is_speaking(&self) -> Result<bool, Error> {
let Features { is_speaking, .. } = self.supported_features();
if is_speaking {
self.0.read().unwrap().is_speaking()
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Returns list of available voices.
pub fn voices(&self) -> Result<Vec<Voice>, Error> {
let Features { voice, .. } = self.supported_features();
if voice {
self.0.read().unwrap().voices()
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Return the current speaking voice.
pub fn voice(&self) -> Result<Option<Voice>, Error> {
let Features { get_voice, .. } = self.supported_features();
if get_voice {
self.0.read().unwrap().voice()
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Set speaking voice.
pub fn set_voice(&mut self, voice: &Voice) -> Result<(), Error> {
let Features {
voice: voice_feature,
..
} = self.supported_features();
if voice_feature {
self.0.write().unwrap().set_voice(voice)
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Called when this speech synthesizer begins speaking an utterance.
pub fn on_utterance_begin(
&self,
callback: Option<Box<dyn FnMut(UtteranceId)>>,
) -> Result<(), Error> {
let Features {
utterance_callbacks,
..
} = self.supported_features();
if utterance_callbacks {
let mut callbacks = CALLBACKS.lock().unwrap();
let id = self.0.read().unwrap().id().unwrap();
let mut callbacks = callbacks.get_mut(&id).unwrap();
callbacks.utterance_begin = callback;
Ok(())
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Called when this speech synthesizer finishes speaking an utterance.
pub fn on_utterance_end(
&self,
callback: Option<Box<dyn FnMut(UtteranceId)>>,
) -> Result<(), Error> {
let Features {
utterance_callbacks,
..
} = self.supported_features();
if utterance_callbacks {
let mut callbacks = CALLBACKS.lock().unwrap();
let id = self.0.read().unwrap().id().unwrap();
let mut callbacks = callbacks.get_mut(&id).unwrap();
callbacks.utterance_end = callback;
Ok(())
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/// Called when this speech synthesizer is stopped and still has utterances in its queue.
pub fn on_utterance_stop(
&self,
callback: Option<Box<dyn FnMut(UtteranceId)>>,
) -> Result<(), Error> {
let Features {
utterance_callbacks,
..
} = self.supported_features();
if utterance_callbacks {
let mut callbacks = CALLBACKS.lock().unwrap();
let id = self.0.read().unwrap().id().unwrap();
let mut callbacks = callbacks.get_mut(&id).unwrap();
callbacks.utterance_stop = callback;
Ok(())
} else {
Err(Error::UnsupportedFeature)
}
}
/*
* Returns `true` if a screen reader is available to provide speech.
*/
#[allow(unreachable_code)]
pub fn screen_reader_available() -> bool {
#[cfg(target_os = "windows")]
{
#[cfg(feature = "tolk")]
{
let tolk = Tolk::new();
return tolk.detect_screen_reader().is_some();
}
#[cfg(not(feature = "tolk"))]
return false;
}
false
}
}
impl Drop for Tts {
fn drop(&mut self) {
if Arc::strong_count(&self.0) <= 1 {
if let Some(id) = self.0.read().unwrap().id() {
let mut callbacks = CALLBACKS.lock().unwrap();
callbacks.remove(&id);
}
}
}
}
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug)]
pub enum Gender {
Male,
Female,
}
#[derive(Clone, Debug)]
pub struct Voice {
pub(crate) id: String,
pub(crate) name: String,
pub(crate) gender: Option<Gender>,
pub(crate) language: LanguageIdentifier,
}
impl Voice {
pub fn id(&self) -> String {
self.id.clone()
}
pub fn name(&self) -> String {
self.name.clone()
}
pub fn gender(&self) -> Option<Gender> {
self.gender
}
pub fn language(&self) -> LanguageIdentifier {
self.language.clone()
}
}